Disaster Management at present is a crying need of South Asia. Devastating floods, tidal bores, cyclones, earthquakes, epidemics, civil strife and the like events have become a part of life of the people living in this region. Unfortunately, there is a very little preparation to cope with such natural calamities. In most cases, affected areas have limited capability of effective response to immediate emergency needs to minimize mortality, epidemics, providing food and shelter, and maintaining essential services. Environmental degradation accentuates disasters and at the same time disasters also increase environmental degradation.
Disaster management planning based on existing infrastructure, availability of resources and manpower is highly essential for long-term rehabilitation. .
The scale of disasters in South Asia defies comprehension. The cyclone and storm surges in Bangladesh in 1991 killed an estimated 140,000 people. In India, the drought of 1987-88 affected 285 million people and in Pakistan a great number of were affected and became home less due to earthquake in 1991.. The deforestation in Nepal is causing serious environment problems affecting livesin home and in neighboring countries.
The floods in Bangladesh in September 1988 affected 37 million people and 6.4 million hectares of crop land. The flood of 1998 was a repetition of the same situation.
South Asian Region with a population of 1.626 billion which is about one-quarter of world population living within the Asian Tropical monsoon; shares water resources, glaciers, rivers and of course common climate irrespective of cultures and boundaries. However, this highly populated region has diverse culture but poor and very vulnerable to natural and anthropogenic disasters like, tropical cyclones, floods, droughts, earthquake, Tsunami, fire and epidemics etc. which have caused worst impacts on lives and livelihoods. In the recent past, the severities of the disasters have been intensified and people are becoming more susceptible especially the women and children. A few examples of extreme events of this region are highlighted below:
Bangladesh Cyclone 1991: The Bangladesh cyclone hit Bangladesh on 29th April. The storm originated in the Indian Ocean and crossed the Bay of Bengal coast with a diameter of 600 km. The maximum wind speed observed 260 km/h. The maximum storm surge height reached about 5 to 8 m. Casualty: 138,000 people, 70,000 cattle. Damages: loss of property was estimated at about USD 86.4 million.
South Asian tsunami 2004: The Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea mega-thrust earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on Sunday, 26 December 2004, with an epicenter off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The quake itself is known by the scientific community as the Sumatra–Andaman earthquake and the magnitude was 9.1 and it was the longest duration of faulting ever observed, between 8.3 and 10 minutes. The earthquake was caused when the Indian Plate was sub-ducted by the Burma Plate and triggered a series of devastating tsunamis along the coasts of most landmasses bordering the Indian Ocean, killing over 230,000 people in fourteen countries, and inundating coastal communities with waves up to 30 meters high. The earthquake and resulting tsunami affected many countries in Southeast Asia and beyond, including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, the Maldives, Somalia, Myanmar, Malaysia, Seychelles, Tanzania, Bangladesh, South Africa, Yemen, Kenya and Madagasker. Many other countries, especially Australia and those in Europe, had large numbers of citizens traveling in the region on holiday. Sweden lost 543 citizens in the disaster, while Germany had 539 identified victims. It was one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history. Indonesia was the hardest-hit country, followed by Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand.
Cyclone Sidr-2007: Cyclone Sidr was the strongest named cyclone in the Bay of Bengal, resulting in one of the worst natural disasters in Bangladesh. Sidr formed in the central Bay of Bengal, and quickly strengthened to reach peak 1-minute sustained winds of 260 km/h. The storm eventually made landfall in Bangladesh on November 15, 2007, causing large-scale evacuations. A total 4036 deaths were blamed on the storm and the loss of property was estimated USD 1.7 billion. The World Heritage Sundarbans mangrove forest along with huge wildlife was badly affected. Although, the death from Sidr number in the hundreds but damage to homes, crops and livelihoods could be extensive. Under a Cyclone Preparedness Program, volunteers evacuated at least 600,000 Bangladeshis in the path of the storm. Many are housed in 1,800 multipurpose disaster shelters built along the coast. Relief organizations distributed seven-day emergency disaster kits of food, blankets and clothing for evacuated families.
Cyclone Nargis- 2008: A very strong tropical cyclone was originated in the central Bay of Bengal on 27th April moved eastward and caused the worst natural disaster in the recorded history of Burma. The cyclone made landfall in Burma on Friday, May 2, 2008, sending a storm surge 40 kilometers up the densely-populated Irrawaddy delta, causing catastrophic destruction and at least 138,000 fatalities. The maximum wind speed was recorded 215 km/hr. There were around 55,000 people missing and many other deaths were found in other towns and areas. Damage was estimated at over US$10 billion, which made it the most damaging cyclone ever recorded in this basin. Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and India were also affected by the devastating Nargis. But for effective awareness the death was only 126 in Bangladesh
Cyclone Aila 2009: The disaster Cyclone Aila hit the south western part of Bangladesh and West Bengal of India on 25th May 2009 with a maximum wind speed 120 km/hr. Critically, Aila destroyed more than 700 km of coastal embankments and 325 people were killed by the flooding of which 26 were Bangladeshi. The seawater flooded villages and fields displacing over 2 million people, many of whom were still living in poor conditions on strips of raised land one year later. 100,000 livestock were killed and over 340,660 acres of cropland destroyed and the total loss of property was estimated USD 552.6 million. Still the repair of the embankments is not completed and thousands of families remained more vulnerable to future flooding.
Table-1 Tropical Cyclones Affected Coastal Zones
|Cyclones||Affected Regions||Wind Speed km/hr||Deaths||Damages US $ in million|
|Bhola Cyclone-1970||Bangladesh, India||205||500,000||86.4|
|Nargis-2008||Myanmar Bangladesh India, Sri Lanka||215||138,366 (126 in Bangladesh)||10,000|
|Aila-2009||Bangladesh India||120||325 (26 in Bangladesh)||552.6|
Cyclone Mahasen of May 2013 that affected Bangladesh, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand and Myanmar claimed lives of around 150 people and crop damage of around US$5.14 million.
These are a few of the many instances of the effects of natural disasters in South Asia and their severity. Along with these, there are problems caused by environmental degradation, quick unplanned urbanization, industrialization, huge influx of population in the megacities and many other hazards.
In view of above, IUBAT University created South Asian Disaster Management Center (SADMC) in 1991 to contribute to emergency as well as contingency management performance of local, and regional bodies and other organizations. SADMC is geared towards strengthening disaster management activities as well as environmental management in the region.
The basic goal of South Asian Disaster Management Center (SADMC) is to improve emergency as well as contingency management performance of private voluntary agencies, local and national, regional, and international organizations through comprehensive professional development programs in disaster management and environmental management.
The objectives of the center, are:
- To apply knowledge of management science for effective management of natural disasters and related environmental issues.
- To integrate traditional and indigenous knowledge on disaster management through research and consultation.
- To conduct training and orientation programs for executives and policy makers to develop skills in disaster and/environmental management.
- To develop academic specialization on disaster and environmental management.
- To disseminate information on disaster management and environmental issues through information sharing and publication.
- To develop appropriate linkages with national, regional and international disaster management and environmental programs as well as bodies.
The programs include training courses, workshops, and seminars for sharing knowledge and skill improvement; providing consultancy services and conducting applied research. It also offers joint courses and consultancy services. It organizes conferences and disseminates knowledge gained through appropriate research, publications and other field activities. The disaster management programs identify and provide opportunities for research and manpower development.
Given the overall objective of the center to generate knowledge about disaster and environment management and the application of such knowledge in increasing the effectiveness of national, regional and international efforts in managing disasters in this region, the creation of such knowledge at the center is focused on generic as well as applied research. In addressing this, the orientation of research activities in the center has been following two complementary approaches which include:
- Development of frameworks for exploration of basic issues which have bearing on disaster management program This is required to identify the determinants of need for disaster management services and to address issues in cognition and motivation to cope with disasters; and
- Action-oriented research for bringing changes to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the current programs and organizations. The research activities of the center are expected to make a positive impact by improving performance and efficient utilization of resources along with the development of professional norms.
The manpower development activities in the center are mainly geared towards the development of professionals, managers and field supervisors capable of manning and guiding the country’s disaster management efforts through a combination of structured courses of studies, field visits, and project work. The emphasis on developing manpower in the sector stems from the contention of various quarters that operating as well as administrative/managerial expertise needs to be substantially enhanced in the context of disaster management in the region.
Added to the government program personnel are a large number of individuals of private enterprises and NGOs involved in disaster management and environmental activities. Then there are the voluntary organizations and community groups involved in this area. They too represent a significant manpower complement requiring specially tailored training which the center endeavors to support within its capability. In recent times, the training experiences of the resource persons of the center have led to the development of an improved approach catering simultaneously to various segments within the larger target group.
The center also offers specially-tailored courses for specific clients. Course contents are designed with particular focus on the participant’s work environment and task domain. An innovative approach that has been introduced is to involve the participants in mini-research on problems relating to their work within the organizational context in order to develop analytical and decision making skills. As a result, the sponsoring organization will also derive substantive benefits. The involvement of professional managers having experience in subject matters relating to the learning objectives of the participants, and the introduction of field visits to enable the participants to relate to practices in reality lend further relevance to the manpower development program.
The center offer courses, seminars and workshops on management of disaster and environmental issues for different levels of officials and managers of government, non-government and private organizations. Descriptions of program offerings and services are provided below for illustration.
A disaster preparedness program calls for attempts to prevent or minimize loss of life and property caused by disasters and to facilitate recovery through strengthening of national disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness, response and rehabilitation by providing the following types of training activities and courses and consultancy services.
Certificate Course on Disaster Management
This course is normally offered two times in a year; it provides multi-disciplinary overview of the field of disaster management and is intended to improve the understanding and skills of mid-to-senior level persons having responsibility for some aspect of emergency preparedness or response.
Special Certificate Courses
Specialized short courses are organized to meet specific emergency related topics, or on request, for agencies or departments involved in specialized emergency-related tasks.
Certificate Course for Field Supervisors
This course aims at improving the supervisory and leadership skills of the people engaged in organizing, directing and leading the volunteers or workers engaged in motivation, mobilizing and helping people before, during and after the disasters.
Certificate Course on Information,
Education, Motivation and Communication
The course will orient the participants with the art of successful education and communication activities so that they can motivate people to take precautionary measures and emergency steps to reduce the impact of disaster.
Research and Planning Services
Research may be undertaken upon request in such areas as vulnerability analyses, disaster management structures, the evaluation of disaster related operations and environmental issues. Support can be provided in the preparation and simulation of contingency plans related to specific disaster situations of environmental aspects.
Effective performance of any program requires, among other things, a set of well-designed and appropriate management and operating systems, a group of experts to develop and design these systems, and a set of capable managers and operators to operate and maintain these systems competently. It has been recognized that improved systems are very much needed in the disaster and environmental management for ensuring effective operations. Although, some attention has been given recently to enhance the capabilities and skills of managers and operators; yet initiatives in developing management and operating systems are still limited. In the context of this situation, the center endeavors to provide assistance to policy makers, program managers and operators through its advisory services.
The advisory service activities are basically directed towards meeting the needs of the organizations in terms of system identification, design and implementation through a process of interaction and exchange of ideas. The issues that are addressed range from evaluation and problem solving tasks to system development exercise.
Within this overall domain, the center takes the initiative to delineate and propose advisory services in various areas to obtain reactions of the managers or operations and to help them shape their felt needs in more concrete terms. The center also entertains requests from government, non-government and private organizations for advisory services on disaster and environment related areas.
In its institutional linkage development efforts, the SADMC strives to achieve the following with the relevant-environment:
- Participation in government committees and forums
- Participation in activities of other organizations concerned with disaster management and environment-related sectors
- Collaboration with other centers, institutes, organizations and associations
- Information sharing through publication and communication
- Providing opportunities to other organizations, institutions and individuals to participate in SADMC activities
- Development of professional personnel
The resource person base of the center consists of academicians, researches, trainers, experts, government officials and practitioners from national and international organizations. They are drawn from the academic base of IUBAT University as well as resource person base of the university.
The SADMC is thoroughly committed to the long range goal of establishing itself as a center of excellence in social sector management. In trying to strive for such a goal, it envisages development of expertise in disaster management and environment areas in the country and the region. The SADMC is also committed to the idea of becoming a thought leader in the disaster management and environment not only within the regional boundary but also to the international domain.
To provide a lasting impression through its training programs, the center will develop a number of cases and will bring out case book on relevant issues in disaster and environmental programs. One such case study has been developed on the April, 1991 Cyclone in Bangladesh. It strongly advocates and pursues the development of appropriate training materials to bring relevance, objectivity, and utility of the training activities. Eventual publication of books, research monographs, and cases is expected to lend effective support to such efforts. There is a long-term goal of developing various courses to produce qualified manpower in this sector.
There are plans to continue efforts of developing resource persons through orientation trips, and participation in training programs, workshops, seminars, and conferences in the region. The SADMC will place greater emphasis on conserving and dissemination to enable a smooth flow and exchange of ideas and research findings with other centers of excellence in the pursuit of new knowledge.
Inter-institutional linkages have already been established and ADMC maintains linkage with other centers of disaster and environment management. The established links are:
- Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), AIT, Bangkok, Thailand
- International Center for Drought Information, University of Nebraska in Lincoln, USA
- Disaster Management Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA
- Disaster Research Unit, the University of Manitoba, Canada
- Center for International Programs, Curtin University of Technology, Perth, Australia
- Disaster Preparedness Centre, Cranfield, England
- Oxford Center for Disaster Studies, England
- United States Environment Training Institute (USETI), USA
With rigor, relevance and excellence as the underlying objective of the center, it is committed to extending the frontiers of knowledge in disaster management and environment as well as manpower development.
ACTIVITIES TO DATE
Cyclone Management Course for the officers and volunteers of Cyclone Preparedness Program (CPP), conducted in January/February, 1991. This was organized by CPP with substantive SADMC inputs.
- Workshop on disaster management conducted in July, 1991 for the executives of the World Vision of Bangladesh for 2 weeks on full-time basis. The closing function of this program was attended by the Education Minister, Government of Bangladesh as Chief Guest and Visiting Faculty of Asian Institute of Technology (AIT), Bangkok, as Special Guest. Disaster management workshop for executives of government, NGOs and international organizations, held at the Department of Meteorology Conference Room for 3 weeks in the afternoon. This was attended by 38 executives and the closing function was attended by the Deputy Leader of Bangladesh Jatiyo Sangsad.
- Regional workshop on Cyclone Mitigation held at Institution of Engineers for 2 weeks and were attended by delegates from 10 countries. This was conducted in collaboration with ADPC, AIT, and funded by Commission of European Communities (CEC). The inaugural function was attended by Deputy Leader of Bangladesh Jatiyo Sangsad, State Minister for Education and CEC Ambassador in Bangladesh. The closing ceremony was graced by the President of Bangladesh, President of AIT and State Minister for Relief and Rehabilitation.
- Curriculum Development Seminar on Disaster Management, attended by an Australian visiting meteorology expert. The deliberations of the seminar were helpful in evolving an agreed curriculum for training of disaster managers. Further work on this is continuing.
- Disaster management workshop for 3 weeks conducted in the afternoon for the executives of the government, non-government and international organizations, in February, 1992. The closing function for this program was graced by the Minister for Environment, Forest and Livestock of the GOB.
- Seminar on Disaster and Development held on October, 1992 in observance of International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) Day. This was offered by one of the SADMC alumni and attended by about 50 interested individuals.
- Disaster management workshop for 4 weeks conducted in the afternoon for mid-level executives in November-December, 1992. The program concluded with the State Minister for Relief and Rehabilitation, GOB as Chief Guest for awarding certificates.
- Two weeks long workshop on disaster management geared towards mid and field level managers. Secretary of Ministry of Education inaugurated the workshop. The Minister for Energy and Power, GOB was the Chief Guest in the certificate awarding ceremony.
- Two weeks long Training of Trainers in Disaster Management conducted in collaboration with the Commonwealth Secretariat, London and Ministry of Finance, GOB in May-June, 1993. The program was inaugurated by the Minister for Manpower and Labor, GOB. The certificate awarding ceremony was graced by the Minister for Information, GOB, Principal Resource Person from Australia and Chancellor of Indiana University, Gary Campus, USA.
- Seminar on Water Resources Development in Bangladesh held in June, 1993. This was offered by a Visitor to IUBAT University from International Movement to Save Bangladesh. Toronto, Canada.
- 3 weeks disaster management workshop conducted in the afternoon for the executives of government, non-government and international organizations conducted in November-December, 1993. The State Minister for Relief and Rehabilitation of GOB was the chief guest in the certificate awarding ceremony.
- Training of Trainers on Disaster Management, November 19 to December 1, 1994 for 25 trainers under the sponsorship of the Commonwealth Secretariat and Economic Relations Division (ERD) of the Government of Bangladesh. The program was inaugurated by His Excellency the President of the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. The closing ceremony was graced by the Minister for Food and State Minister for Planning of the Government of Bangladesh
- Workshop on Disaster Management, November 19 to December 8, 1994, attended by 18 participants. The certificate awarding ceremony was graced by the Minister for Shipping, the Government of Bangladesh.
- Three-weeks Disaster Management Workshop for the government, non-government and private participants from December 8, 1996 to January 1, 1997. This was attended by 13 participants. The certificate giving ceremony was graced by the State Minister for Relief and Disaster Management.
- Threeweeks long annual Disaster Management Workshop for participants from government and non-government agencies as well as universities conducted in December of 1998. The certificate giving ceremony was graced by the State Minister for Planning, GOB.
- Intensive Training of Trainers Course on Disaster Management (TOTDM) for Primary Training Institute (PTI) Instructors organized for Disaster Management Bureau (DMB), Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief in cooperation with Directorate of Primary Education, Ministry of Education with resource support of UNICEF, Dhaka. This program conducted on a full-time basis from December 14-19, 1998, had 21 participants from the Khulna division. The TOTDM for PTI Instructors was inaugurated by the Director General of DMB and the certificate awarding ceremony was graced by the State Minister for Primary and Mass Education, GOB.
- TOTDM for PTI Instructors of Rajshahi and Barisal Divisions. The program had 15 instructors and conducted from December 20-24, 1998. The certificates for this program were ceremonially distributed by the Director General of the Directorate of Primary Education of GOB.
- TOTDM for PTI Instructors of Chittagong division. The program had 22 participants and conducted from December 26 to 30, 1998. The certificate awarding ceremony was graced by the Chief of UNICEF, Dhaka and Coordinator of Urban Development Program of Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand.
- TOTDM for PTI Superintendents of Chittagong, Rajshahi, Khulna and Barisal Divisions. With 17 participants, the program was conducted from December 31, 1998 to January 4, 1999. The closing ceremony of the program was graced by the Minister for Law, Justice and Parliamentary Affairs of GOB .
- Asia Regional Program of Training on Disaster Management (ARTDM) in Bangladesh organized in collaboration with the Commonwealth Secretariat, London and Economic Relations Division (ERD) of Ministry of Finance, Government of Bangladesh. The training program was conducted from June 23 to July 5, 2007. The program was attended by 14 participants, 4 from Sri Lanka, 2 from Malaysia, 1 from Pakistan and 7 from Bangladesh. The resource persons of the program were drawn from Bangladesh, USA, UK and Canada belonging to government institutions/agencies/departments, development organizations, academic institutions, NGOs, visiting faculty and resource persons of IUBAT University.
- Training of Trainers in Disaster Management (TOTDM), in 2008 under the auspices of the Commonwealth Secretariat and External Relations Department of the Government of Bangladesh involving 25 participants from government and non-government organizations and academic institutions.
SADMC also provide support to disaster-related training activities of other organizations in the country. The center is also giving attention to research activities and a doctoral level research on disaster management in Bangladesh has been sponsored at AIT. SADMC activities have drawn attention of local and international organizations. SADMC participated in the Inter Regional Seminar on Disaster Management at Jakarta, Indonesia in December, 1993 at the invitation of United Nations, New York. A paper on Disaster Management in Bangladesh was presented in the seminar. SADMC provided Resource Person to North East India Consultation on Disaster Mitigation and Management held at Assam Administrative Staff College, Guahati, Assam, India at the request of North East India Committee on Relief and Development (NEICORD) in April, 1995. Recently, the Commonwealth Secretariat, London has provided support to training activities of SADMC. The UNICEF, Dhaka has also supported training activities of SADMC. SADMC was invited by World Meteorological Organization (WMO), Geneva to conduct a session on Vulnerability at the Seminar on Meteorological and Hydrological Risk Assessment for Asia Pacific Region, held at New Delhi, India in 1996 and at Chiang Mai, Thailand in 2001.
SADMC also contributed to International Conference on Local Authorities Confronting Disasters and Emergencies, the Netherlands, 1996; WMO Second Regional Technical Conference, Australia, 2004; Australian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society International Conference on Storms, Australia, 2004; World Conference on Disaster Reduction, Kobe, Japan, 2005; FAO Regional Technical Workshop on Coastal Protection in the Aftermath of the Indian Ocean Tsunami, Thailand, 2006; Sixth WMO International Workshop on Tropical Cyclone, Costa Rica, 2006, IPCC Scoping Meeting on Extreme Events and Disasters, Norway, 2009; Government of Norway Climate Change, Adaptation and Development Seminar, Oslo, 2009; 6th Workshop on Asian Monsoon Year, Kunming, China, 2009, Seminar on the Special Report on “Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation” (SREX), Bangkok, Thailand, 2010, Second Lead Authors Meeting: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation – Hanoi, Vietnam, 2010, Third Lead Author’s Meeting on Special Report on “Managing the Risks of Extreme Events & Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, Geneva, Switzerland, , 2010, Fourth Lead Author’s Meeting on Special Report on “Managing the Risks of Extreme Events & Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, 2011, consultation on Managing the Risks of Climate Extremes and Disasters in Asia – What can we learn from the IPCC Special Report, New Delhi, India, 2012, Joint WMO-IOC Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM-4), Yeosu, Republic of Korea, 2012, National Launching of IPCC’s Summary Report on ‘Managing the Risks of Climate Extremes and Disasters in Asia – What can we learn from the IPCC Special Report, Karachi, Pakistan, 2012, ADB Leadership Program for Sustainable Development and Climate Change, Manila, Philippines, 2012, SAARC Regional Consultation Meeting on “Engaging SAARC for Disaster Resilience”, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2012 and Asia Leadership Program on Sustainable Development and Climate Change, New Delhi, India, 2013.
- SADMC is presently participating in the IPCC Climate Change program as one of the contributing author to climate change and extreme events report over a period of 3 years. As a part of this on-going activity, contributions have been made in the First Lead Authors Meeting: Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation, Panama, 2009, Norway sponsored Asian Disaster Preparedness Centre Seminar on the Special Report on Managing Risks of Extreme Events and Disaster to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX), Bangkok, Thailand, 2010 and the IPCC Second Lead Authors Meeting on SREX, Hanoi, Vietnam, 2010. Published SREX Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation: Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)- 2012 : Lead Author and contributing Authors IPCC Working Group II. Cambridge University Press: ISBN 978-1-107-025006-6, www.cambridge.org/978117607804
SADMC has also provided consultation to various organizations in disaster management training, planning and research activities. Some of these organizations are HEED-Bangladesh, CONCERN, Disaster Management Bureau (DMB), Ministry of Disaster Management and Relief, Cyclone Preparedness Program (CPP), Bangladesh Department of Meteorology, Gono Shaystha Kendra, United Nations World Food Program (WFP), Institution of Engineers-Bangladesh, Bangladesh Air Force, and CARE International.
Besides the local dignitaries and experts, SADMC received visitors and experts from various countries of South Asia as well as from USA, Canada, England and Australia. Department of Economic and Social Development of the United Nations, New York has recognized SADMC as an important center to be invited to participate in Interregional Seminar on Disaster Management. The Commonwealth Secretariat, London recognizes SADMC as a center of excellence for regional training.
The SADMC offers Certificate courses of 2-3 weeks in disaster management for the executives of different organizations having responsibility in disaster management. The center also runs Training of Trainers in Disaster Management. There are plans for holding regional workshops on cyclones, floods and droughts and disaster management.
CURRICULUM OF CERTIFICATE COURSES
Workshop on Disaster Management
SADMC regularly offers a 3-4 week afternoon or 2 weeks full time Workshop on Disaster Management for mid level executives responsible for disaster preparedness or response. The aim of the workshop is to improve the disaster management skills of persons who, by nature of their duties, have or are likely to have responsibility for disaster related program management. Specific goals of the workshop are:
- To upgrade knowledge of the theory and practice of disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness, emergency response, reconstruction and recovery.
- To improve disaster- related management skills.
- To prepare for added or new responsibilities in disaster management field.
As to the curriculum, the workshop is specially designed to provide an overview of the discipline of disaster management. The program contents are :
- Application of disaster management principles & approaches to practice
- Assessment and monitoring of disaster risks
- Ways to mitigate disaster losses
- Understanding human and organizational behaviors
- Preparing for disaster
- Improving disaster response through better program management
- Understanding of disaster phenomenon
- Reconstruction and rehabilitation
- Disaster management codes
- Interactions of environment, disaster and development
Training of Trainers on Disaster Management (TOTDM)
SADMC offers TOTDM for 2 weeks to develop trainers in disaster management within the country. The aim of TOTDM is to provide an exposure to the elements of disaster management and improve skills of persons in being better prepared in organizing training in disaster management, being a good trainer and dealing with disaster related program management. Specifically, the training seeks to:
- Upgrade knowledge of the theory and practice of disaster prevention, mitigation, preparedness, emergency response, construction and recovery.
- Improve disaster-related personnel management skills.
- Prepare the trainers to have the capability to organize and contribute to training of personnel of various categories in disaster management.
- Improve the trainer’s capability in information management, instruction methods and training planning in disaster management.
The curriculum of TOTDM emphasizes an overview of the discipline of disaster management as well as preparing trainers who can contribute to disaster management training and development. The course content includes:
- understanding of disaster phenomenon
- applications of disaster management principles and approaches to practice
- assessment and monitoring of disaster risks
- ways to mitigate disaster losses
- understanding human and organizational behavior
- improving disaster response through better program management
- reconstruction and rehabilitation
- information management tools and techniques
- training pedagogy, organization, material development and conducting training
- instructional methods
- training planning
In addition to the above, participants are provided the opportunity to exchange professional views and share experiences.
Regional Workshop on Cyclone Mitigation
SADMC organizes Regional Workshop on Cyclone Mitigation for 2 weeks duration. The aim of the workshop is to provide advanced knowledge and training to officials who are responsible for developing or responding to cyclone warning systems, and to engineers or planners who apply mitigation measures to reduce loss of life and damage to property. Specially, the workshop seeks to:
- Increase participant’s knowledge of practical cyclone meteorology
- Improve understanding of the nature of effective cyclone warnings
- Improve the dissemination of, and response to cyclone warnings
- Determine how existing cyclone warning system can be improved
- Explore cyclone mitigation measures that can protect life and property
- Increase awareness and promote local initiatives in identifying cyclone hazards and prevailing community vulnerabilities
The curriculum emphasis is on the following aspects:
- Overview of practical tropical cyclone meteorology
- Evaluation of technical, organizational and information components of effective cyclone warning systems
- Cyclone hazard location studies
- Team exercises on tracking cyclones, preparing and interpreting warning messages and developing community preparedness
- Cyclone awareness programs that address national and local community vulnerabilities and needs
- Regulatory and other long-term policy measures to protect lives, properties, and the environment
- Structural and non-structural prevention and mitigation measures
Training on Cyclone Mitigation for Outreach Staff and Volunteers
SADMC seeks to enhance the capability of staff and volunteers engaged in the coastal belt in cyclone mitigation activities by offering a 2 weeks training on cyclone mitigation. The objectives of the training are :
- to broaden the technical knowledge base of the participants about disasters in general and cyclone in particular,
- to enhance their familiarity with all aspects of cyclone preparedness program,
- to orient them with the principles of management and their application in cyclone preparedness for more effective management of disasters,
- to promote their leadership ability,
- to create better understanding of their roles and responsibilities and the need for coordinating efforts with people of other agencies as well as communities,
- to enhance the first aid dispersion capability of the participants, and
- to enhance their capability to train volunteers locally
The curriculum of this training includes the following aspects:
- Understanding disaster and management phenomenon
- Physical nature of tropical cyclone and its impact on Bangladesh
- Understanding meteorology and forecast
- Cyclone preparedness: peace time, pre-cyclone, during cyclone and post cyclone
- Information, education, motivation and communication (IEMC)
- Ways to mitigate losses
- Understanding organizational and human behavior
- Management and office administration
- Information, Assessment and Evaluation
- Improving cyclone disaster response through better program management
- Reconstruction and rehabilitation
- First aid administration
- Training methodology